Indian classical music is oldest form of classical music. This music was created in the India’s wedic period. Also, indian classical music is not divided and composed, like our western classical music. In this music are laws of the universe.
How is It possible? Indian classical music is tuned not, like our western classical music in the equal temperament tuning, but It is tuned in the pure scale. What It means?
Pure (or just) scales are scaled tuned by overtones. Overtones are tones, which are created by multiples of basic fundamental frequency. Ofcourse, there are many people, which creates another tuning based on just intonation, for example Pythagoras, but this
just intonation tuning is based on perfect fifths. Difference of this is only, that Indians used also another ratios of pure tuning, not just one interval, like Pythagoras.
There are two main genres of forms of Indian classical music: Raga and Tala. Raga (or Ragam) is something, like melody. Some ragas are played at some times of days, but those Ragas are not composed, like our music. Tala is something, like rhythm, but this is also not very correct definition. Players of Ragas and Talas interacts with music also. Those people are not composing music, but are rather connected, like with something transcendental.
There are also two main traditions of indian classical music: Carnatic classical music and Hindustani classical music. Word ‘Carnatic’ can say to us, that this word is very related to the word ‘Karnataka’, which is state of south India. Due to this, Carnatic music is played on such indian states, like Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Telangana ETC. It is assumed, that this is first form of indian classical music. Word ‘Hindustani’ is very similar to the word ‘Hindustan’, which means in Persian language word ‘India’. This tradition was created, when India was occupied by Mughal empire. This territory was in the part of North India. Also, Ragas in Carnatic music are very strictly organized and short, but Ragas in Hindustani classical music are very free and long. Mostly in our world is mostly popular Hindustani form of Raga, due to the Ravi Shankar’s popularity. Also, some names of instruments, for example Sitar and Tabla are taken from Persian or Arabic. Those musical instruments are used in Hindustani traditions, but there are a lot of musical instruments.
Indian people says, that greatest musical instrument of those musical instruments is musical instrument, which We have everyone. Yes, this is our human voice. Due to this, there are two previews of vocal indian classical music: